An annotated bibliography is a list of citations of books, articles, etc. Each citation is followed by a brief (usually about 150 words) descriptive and evaluative paragraph, the annotation. The purpose of the annotation is to inform the reader of the relevance, accuracy, and quality of the sources cited.
Creating an annotated bibliography calls for the application of a variety of intellectual skills: concise exposition, succinct analysis, and informed library research.
1. Locate and record citations to books, periodicals, and documents that may contain useful information and ideas on your topic.
2. Choose those works that provide a variety of perspectives on your topic.
3. Cite the book, article, or document using APA style.
4. Write a concise annotation that summarizes the central theme and scope of the book or article, and reflect on the usefulness of this source for your paper (see below).
For this assignment, our annotated bibliography should include a summary and a reflection:
• Summary: 5-8 sentences summary of the text—what is the point of this book or article? What topics are covered? If someone asks what this article/book is about, what would you say?
• Reflection: 3-5 sentences—once you’ve summarized a source, you need to ask how it fits into your research. Was this source helpful to you? How does it help you shape your paper? For which part of your paper is this source is most useful? Has it changed how you think about your topic?
Why should I write an annotated bibliography?
? To learn about your topic
? To help other researchers
? To review the literature on a particular subject
? To illustrate the quality of research that you have done
? To provide examples of the types of sources available
? To explore the subject for further research
What does the annotated bibliography look like?
Armstrong, T. (1994). Multiple intelligences in the classroom. Alexandria, VA:
Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Armstrong describes each of seven intelligences identified by Howard Gardner. He offers an informal checklist for identifying personal strengths in the intelligences and suggests classroom applications. This book is a valuable tool for teachers at any level, with concrete suggestions for classroom applications.
Checkley, K. (1997, September). The first seven . . . and the eighth: A conversation
with Howard Gardner.
Educational Leadership, 55, 8-13.
In this interview, Gardner discusses criteria for determining the intelligences, highlights the Naturalist Intelligence, and explodes a number of myths about multiple intelligences theory. He distinguishes between learning styles and multiple intelligences. This distinction has helped me in my teaching, looking at how children respond to different learning situations.
Davis, R. (1991). Learning how to learn: Technology, the seven multiple
intelligences and learning. Paper presented at the Spring CUE Conference,
Palm Springs, CA, May 11, 1991. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED338214).
Davis reviews a number of educational software programs to support learning through the seven multiple intelligences. He uses Snooper Troops as an example and enumerates activities that highlight each of the intelligences. Although the activities for musical intelligence are weak, I have used this software in conjunction with songwriting to list the clues musically.
Gardner, H. (Writer), & DiNozzi, R. (Producer/Director). (1996). MI: Intelligence,
understanding and the mind [Motion picture]. Los Angeles: Into the Classroom Media.
Gardner presents his theory of multiple intelligences, outlining the original seven as well as the eighth, addressing these intelligences in the classroom gives more students access to profound understandings rather than mere factual knowledge. I enjoyed seeing Gardner “in person” and found new insight into the issues of learning for understanding.