In discussing the role of religion in African and other non-Western societies, it is important to recognize that the conception of religion as having a distinct ‘role’ derives from Europe’s secularizing experience of the Renaissance and the Enlightenment. Prior to that time, Christian doctrine permeated European scholarship to an extent that made impossible the discrete identification of one or several ‘roles’ for religion in European society. With the rise of humanism, European scholars began to see religion as a human institution amenable to critical study on a level with other human institutions, such as literature, philosophy and history. As a way of treating post-Enlightenment European and other Western societies, then, a humanistic approach to ‘the role of religion’ poses relatively few problems. Our Service Can Write a Custom Essay on Jihad for You! An awareness of the European secular-humanist heritage of the notion of religion’s ‘role’ does not imply, of course, abandoning Western scholarly principles in which religion is seen to interact with other social institutions.
In this essay on Jihad I consider various scholarly treatments of the role of religion in the history of Hausaland, particularly in the Sokoto jihad led by Shehu (Sheikh) Usman ‘dan Fodio in the early nineteenth century. The jihad constitutes a decisive moment in Hausa history in that it marks the confrontation between different forms of Islamic practice. In this regard, an approach such as M. Schoffeleers’ (1972) historical account of the political role of the M’Bona cult among the Mang’anja offers limited help. It is these Islamic principles which motivated Usman to call for a jihad against the Hausa dynasties, which he saw as both religiously and politically corrupt. Another of his accusations was that people who claimed to be Muslims made their own rules concerning private and public behavior instead of referring to the learned scholars for an authoritative ruling. The jihad, then, pitted Usman and his followers as fundamentalists, in the late twentieth-century sense of the term, against the syncretism of the traditional ruling classes and their subjects. My use here of the term fundamentalist in opposition to traditional contravenes the contemporary dichotomy mentioned above, namely that of ‘fundamentalist’ Islamic reformers vs.
Important evidence for the religious nature of Usman’s cause lies in his pronouncements on social issues, such as the status of women in Hausa society. Numerous scholars, including Muslim Hausa women, have noted Usman’s progressive Islamic stance on the issues of women’s education. Oh Muslim women, do not listen to the words of the misguided ones who seek to lead you astray by ordering you to obey your husband instead of telling you to obey Allah and his messenger. They tell you a woman’s happiness lies in obeying her husband. This is no more than a camouflage to make you satisfy their needs. They impose on you duties which neither Allah nor his messenger impose on you. They make you cook, wash clothes and do other things which they desire while they fail to teach you what Allah and his apostle have prescribed for you. Yusuf, along with B. Sule and P. Starratt (1991), also points out that Usman educated his wives and daughters, and defended women’s right to attend public preaching and instruction with men, provided they dressed modestly and sat apart. Acknowledging a fundamentally, though not exclusively, religious character of the jihad refutes the position put forth by M. G. Smith (1969a) that political structure constitutes the sole determining element in the historical emergence or transformation of social relationships. For Smith, religion serves to legitimate political structures, which are theoretically preeminent; he does not allow that religion may inform political structures, or that religious and political principles may be mutually reinforcing. In arguing for recognition of the religious aspects of the Sokoto jihad as essential and non derivative, I do not wish to imply that the jihad did not incorporate elements that were distinctly nonreligious. The Sokoto jihad clearly had motivations and achievements of various kinds: religious, political and social (among others). 10 per page. You can order a custom essay on Jihad now!
· Evaluate the effects of communication on agency operations in improving community relations. · Evaluate the effects of professional development on agency operations in improving community relations. · Create a mini communication plan that illustrates the steps for improving professional development for the upcoming year. This must specifically address improvements in relations between officers and citizens in the community. · Develop a plan for implementing the professional development, including the specific trainings, the timeline, and how this training will be communicated to the public. Attach your completed memo document to your initial post and submit to the forum. Guided Response: Review several of your colleagues’posts and respond to at least two of your peers by 11:59 p.m. Day 7 of the week. You are encouraged to post your required replies earlier in the week to promote more meaningful and interactive discourse in this assignment forum. Acting as a fellow law enforcement officer that will be participating in this training schedule provide comments that critically evaluate your peer’s memo in terms of the training, schedule, and effectiveness of the communication to the public being proposed. Explain why these aspects should be highlighted in your colleague’s Intervention Plan due in Week Six.