How does acetylcholine influence chemical and physical digestion?

Question 1(Multiple Choice Worth 2 points)

(05.02 MC)

Which of the following would increase the rate of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction

Decreasing enzyme, decreasing substrate, decreasing cofactors
Decreasing enzyme, decreasing inhibitors, decreasing cofactors
Increasing enzyme, increasing substrate, increasing cofactors
Increasing enzyme, increasing inhibitors, increasing cofactors

Question 2(Multiple Choice Worth 2 points)

(06.03 MC)

Lymphocytes can attack and kill cells that have which of the following malfunctions

Lack of nutrients
Lack of hemoglobin
Divide uncontrollably
Produce antibodies

Question 3(Multiple Choice Worth 2 points)

(04.03 LC)

What is the definition of hemostasis

The mechanisms that regulate blood flow through the arteries and veins
The mechanisms that regulate the dilation and constriction of blood vessels
The mechanisms that regulate the volume of blood flowing through blood vessels
The mechanisms that regulate bleeding in an organ or body part due to an injury

Question 4(Multiple Choice Worth 2 points)

(06.05 MC)This is a two-part diagram showing maternal circulation on the left and fetal circulation on the right. Letter A indicates a large crescent-shaped organ that contains blood from the maternal circulation and blood from the fetal circulation. A large tube containing arteries and veins extends out from the crescent-shaped organ into the fetal circulatory system. The tube is labeled letter C. Letter B indicates a junction within the fetal circulatory system at which an artery from the tube indicated by letter C connects with a large blue vein extending down from the heart. This connection occurs very close to the liver. Letter D indicates a connection between the large blood vessel that extends from the right atrium of the fetal heart and a large, arch-shaped vessel that connects to the left ventricle of the fetal heart.
Image Courtesy of 3DScience.com

Based on the diagram above, which of the following describes the role of organ A

It enables maternal-fetal blood exchange so the fetus receives oxygen removes nutrients and waste products.
It delivers oxygen and nutrients and removes carbon dioxide and other waste products through the skin of the fetus.
It connects the fetus to the uterus, which is the source of oxygen, nutrients, and waste disposal for the fetus.
It provides oxygen and nutrients and removes carbon dioxide and other waste products from the fetus’s blood.

Question 5(Multiple Choice Worth 2 points)

(04.02 MC)

This figure shows an artery with a small puncture at its center. Blood is gushing out of the puncture, carrying with it the four major blood components, which are labeled A through D. Component A indicates the red, disk-shaped cells with a depression at their center. Component B indicates the white-colored cells with purple, bean-shaped nuclei. Component C is the yellowish liquid component of the blood. Component D indicates small, yellow, star-shaped bodies within the fluid.
Image Courtesy of 3DScience.com

Based on the diagram above, which of the labeled constituents are formed elements in the blood

A and B
A and C
B and C
C and D

Question 6(Multiple Choice Worth 2 points)

(05.04 MC)

This figure shows the chemical structures and equation of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction. Catechol is a ring-shaped molecule that contains two OH groups. Catechol reacts with one half of an O2 molecule to form benzoquinone plus H2O. Catechol oxidase is written above the rightward-pointing arrow in the reaction equation.
Public Domain

In the enzyme reaction above, catechol is the substrate, oxygen is a reactant, catechol oxidase is the enzyme, benzoquinone is the product, and water (H2O) is a by-product. Which of the following will decrease the rate of this reaction

Reducing the amount of oxygen
Reducing the amount of catechol
Increasing the amount of catechol oxidase
Increasing the amount of benzoquinone

Question 7(Multiple Choice Worth 2 points)

(04.01 MC)

Which of the following describes how the endocrine system could cause blood pressure to increase

By releasing a hormone that constricts blood vessels and increases blood volume
By releasing a hormone that dilates blood vessels and increases blood volume
By releasing a hormone that constricts blood vessels and decreases blood volume
By releasing a hormone that dilates blood vessels and decreases blood volume

Question 8(Multiple Choice Worth 2 points)

(04.01 LC)

Which of the following is correct regarding hypertension

It is only caused by a high-fat diet.
It is only caused by blood clots.
Family history increases risk.
Family history does not increase risk.

Question 9(Multiple Choice Worth 2 points)

(06.02 MC)

What are the functions of T memory cells

To remember a specific antibody and to manufacture the corresponding antigen when needed
To remember a specific antigen and to stimulate the immune system to react faster to invasion
To recognize antibodies and to halt the activation phase in the immune system
To recognize antigens and to begin the activation phase in the immune system

Question 10(Multiple Choice Worth 2 points)

(05.02 MC)

Which of the following is NOT true of mechanical digestion

Muscular contraction in the stomach mix food
The teeth and tongue break food into smaller pieces
It starts in the mouth
Enzymes break down food

Question 11(Multiple Choice Worth 2 points)

(06.03 MC)

The illustration below shows the structure of the lymph system.

This diagram shows a front view of a human female. Various aspects of the lymphatic system are shown. Letter A indicates a small, round organ at the back of the throat just posterior to the mouth. Letter B indicates a pair of elongated organs in the center of the chest. Letter C indicates a large, rounded organ on the left side of the abdomen. Letter D indicates a collection of thick vessels in the abdomen. Letter E indicates a collection of thin vessels in the left thigh.

Public Domain

What is the most accurate description of the structure labeled B

Thymus gland: contains B cells that protect the intestines from infection
Thymus gland: enables immature lymphocytes to mature into T cells
Payer’s patch: enables immature lymphocytes to mature into T cells
Payer’s patch: contains B cells that protect the intestines from infection

Question 12(Multiple Choice Worth 2 points)

(05.01 MC)

A tear in the right rib muscles has caused the muscles to spasm, meaning they are locked in a contracted state. How would this affect breathing in the right lung

It would prevent inspiration.
It would prevent expiration.
It would reduce the force of inspiration.
It would reduce the force of expiration.

Question 13(Multiple Choice Worth 2 points)

(04.02 MC)

According to the National Institute of Health, shock happens when blood pressure drops and blood and oxygen flow decreases to your organs and tissues. Causes of shock include internal or external bleeding, dehydration, burns, or severe vomiting and/or diarrhea. All of these involve the loss of large amounts of body fluids. Shock often accompanies injury.

Why would the loss of large amounts of body fluids result in low blood pressure

It will decrease blood volume, increasing the flow rate of blood.
It will increase blood volume, increasing the flow rate of blood.
It will decrease blood volume, reducing the flow rate of blood.
It will increase blood volume, reducing the flow rate of blood.

Question 14(Multiple Choice Worth 2 points)

(06.04 MC)

The left half of this diagram shows a front view of the female reproductive system. It shows a pink, roughly heart-shaped organ with a large canal extending out of its inferior side. In addition, two smaller tubes extend outward from it
Arteriosclerosis family history
Hemophilia poor nutrition
Anemia iron-deficient diet

Question 17(Multiple Choice Worth 2 points)

(04.01 LC)

Blood pressure is determined by which of the following components

The strength of heart contraction and blood type
The strength of heart contraction and blood volume
The strength of heart valve closure and blood type
The strength of the heart valve closure and blood volume

Question 18(Multiple Choice Worth 2 points)

(04.01 MC)

Exercise can reduce the amount of arterial plaque in blood vessels. Which of the following effects would this produce on the circulatory system

Reduce blood pressure by increasing the diameter of the blood vessels
Increase blood pressure by increasing the diameter of the blood vessels
Reduce blood pressure by decreasing the diameter of the blood vessels
Increase blood pressure by decreasing the diameter of the blood vessels

Question 19(Multiple Choice Worth 2 points)

(04.02 MC)

Which of the formed elements of blood is primarily involved in gas exchange

White blood cells
Red blood cells
Platelets
Plasma

Question 20(Multiple Choice Worth 2 points)

(05.02 MC)

How does acetylcholine influence chemical and physical digestion

Chemical triggers release of pancreatic enzyme; Physical triggers stomach muscle contraction
Chemical triggers release of bile; Physical triggers tongue contraction
Chemical triggers stomach muscle contraction; Physical triggers release of pancreatic enzyme
Chemical triggers tongue contraction; Physical triggers release of bile

Question 21 (Essay Worth 5 points)

(04.05 HC)

Your heart has four valves. Normally, these valves open to let blood flow through your heart, and then shut to keep it from flowing backward. Sometimes the valves don’t work properly, causing some or all of the following disorders. In regurgitation, blood leaks back through the valve in the wrong direction. In valve prolapse, the valves have “floppy” flaps and don’t close tightly. It’s one of the most common heart valve conditions. Sometimes it causes regurgitation. In stenosis, the valve doesn’t open enough and blocks blood flow. Based on your knowledge of the heart, explain how regurgitation, valve prolapse, and stenosis each adversely affects blood flow and the oxygenation of body tissues.

Question 22(Multiple Choice Worth 2 points)

(06.02 LC)

Which of the following is an accurate statement about pathogens

Infection and disease are caused by pathogens living in infectious agents found in the environment.
Pathogens, which cause infection and disease, are the most abundant organisms in the environment.
Most organisms in the environment are harmless, except for pathogens, which can cause disease.
The environment is rich in infectious agents that transmit disease through pathogens.

Question 23(Multiple Choice Worth 2 points)

(04.01 MC)

How does smoking and arterial plaques increase the risk of hypertension

Both increase blood volume.
Both decrease blood volume.
Both expand the diameter of the blood vessels.
Both constrict the diameter of the blood vessels.

Question 24(Multiple Choice Worth 2 points)

(05.02 MC)

Which of the following would accompany a high-protein meal moving through the digestive system

The release of gastrin, which triggers the liver to release bile
The release of secretin, which triggers the stomach to release pepsin
The release of secretin, which triggers the liver to release bile
The release of gastrin, which triggers the stomach to release pepsin

Question 25(Multiple Choice Worth 2 points)

(05.01 MC)

A person ingests a substance that causes the release of epinephrine. This will cause which of the following effects

Decreases your rate of ventilation and dilates the bronchi and alveoli
Decreases your rate of ventilation and constrict the bronchi and alveoli
Increases the rate of ventilation and dilates the bronchi and alveoli
Increase your rate of ventilation and constrict the bronchi and alveoli

Question 26(Multiple Choice Worth 2 points)

(04.02 MC)

According to the National Institute of Health, peripheral arterial disease (PAD) happens when there is a narrowing of the blood vessels outside of your heart. The cause of PAD is atherosclerosis. This can reduce or stop blood flow, usually to the legs, causing them to hurt or feel numb. If severe enough, blocked blood flow can cause tissue death. If this condition is left untreated, a foot or leg may need to be amputated.

Based on the passage above, which of the following would indicate PAD

Low flexibility of blood vessels and increased number of white blood cells
High flexibility of blood vessels and decreased number of white blood cells
Low flexibility of blood vessels in the limbs and high blood pressure
High flexibility of blood vessels in the limbs and low blood pressure

Question 27(Multiple Choice Worth 2 points)

(06.04 MC)

This diagram shows a right lateral view of a male testicle. It consists of an external sac, which holds a mass of oval-shaped tissue. The oval-shaped tissue contains five masses of small, spaghetti-like tubules, which are labeled with the letter D. The tubules combine into another mass of tissue, which is in the shape of a mushroom tipped on its side. The mushroom-shaped mass is labeled with the letter C. A single thicker tubule travels in a convoluted way out of the side of the mushroom cap. This tube is labeled with the letter B. The tube then extends into a larger tube that also contains blood vessels, with the blood vessels labeled with letter A. The larger tube travels out of the superior side of the external sac.
Image Courtesy of 3DScience.com 2013

Based on the diagram above, what are the functions of B and D

Maturation and release of ovarian follicles
Production and transport of sperm cells
Production and storage of sperm cells
Production and maturation of ovarian follicles

Question 28(Multiple Choice Worth 2 points)

(04.03 MC)

Hemostasis involves which of the following components

Platelets, endothelium cells, and fibrin
Platelets, fibrin, and collagen fibers
Collagen fibers, endothelium cells, and platelets
Collagen fibers, endothelium cells, and fibrin

Question 29(Multiple Choice Worth 2 points)

(04.02 LC)

Which of the following would be one of the three formed elements of the blood

Antibodies
Platelets
Serum
Hemoglobin

Question 30 (Essay Worth 5 points)

(06.01 HC)

Describe the process of how urea is removed from the blood, deposited into urine, and then leaves the kidneys.

Question 31(Multiple Choice Worth 2 points)

(06.03 MC)

Which of the following describes the path of lymph that just exited a lymph node

Lymph vessels, to lymph ducts, to tissues
Lymph vessels, to lymph trunks, to subclavian vein
Lymph trunks, to lymph vessels, to abdominal vena cava
Lymph trunks, to blood vessels, to tissues

Question 32(Multiple Choice Worth 2 points)

(06.01 MC)

Digestion in the body occurs chemically and mechanically. The digestive process starts in the mouth as the teeth grind the food and saliva adds digestive enzymes. The process continues in the esophagus aided by peristalsis.

In this passage, peristalsis is

the addition of pepsin.
the absorption of lacteals.
the production of bile.
the contraction of muscle.

Question 33(Multiple Choice Worth 2 points)

(05.03 MC)

Why are nucleic acids not considered a nutrient

Only macromolecules containing nitrogen are considered nutrients.
Only macromolecules that produce enzymes are considered nutrients.
They are information-storing molecules and are not used for energy storage.
They are structural molecules and are not used for energy storage.

Question 34(Multiple Choice Worth 2 points)

(04.01 MC)

The first heart sound is made by

blood moving to the atria
blood moving to the ventricles
opening of the valve between the atria and the ventricles
closing of the valve between the atria and the ventricles

Question 35(Multiple Choice Worth 2 points)

(06.02 MC)

Which of the following are examples of the physical and chemical nonspecific immune system

Physical: skin and enzymes; chemical: inflammation and fever
Physical: skin and mucous membranes; chemical: tears and saliva
Physical: stomach acids and enzymes; chemical: histamines and white blood cells
Physical: inflammation and fever; chemical: white blood cells and histamines

Question 36(Multiple Choice Worth 2 points)

(06.02 MC)

Where is urea produced, and where is it removed from the blood

Kidneys; bladder
Bladder; liver
Kidneys; liver
Liver; kidneys