In this phase, you will be required to complete the Measure phase of the problem. You will need to define the Critical to Quality elements and how to measure them. Data will be provided to you, and you must develop Control Charts for the CTQ data.
First, CTQ items are usually defined by the Guest – but in this case the success of the project will be in its ability to reduce costs. The owners of the hotels will not be interested in pursuing this “sustainability” initiative if it does not reduce costs, regardless of what the management company or the brand think. So, some (but not all) of the CTQ metrics should be related to measuring the costs.
As you are considering your CTQ’s, keep these guidelines in mind.
Critical to Quality (CTQ) metrics are those things that will be MEASURED to determine if the project is successful. In order to insure success, consider what the goals of the project are, and what you would need to know to make certain the changes implemented were working.
CTQ’s must be objectively measurable. So anyone could understand what was being measured, and how it was being measured. Things like “happiness” and “friendliness” are not measurable. Interestingly, “cleanliness” is measured as a component of guest satisfaction – but it is highly subjective. We all have different views of what “clean” means, and anyone would be hard pressed to objectively describe the difference between a “10” cleanliness score and an “8” cleanliness. None the less, it is a data point which is being currently collect as part of the guest satisfaction surveys.
Ideally, CTQ’s should include metrics which are already being measured as part of the routine business. Adding new metrics – unless they can be measured automatically get to be very expensive. In this case, much of what you would want to use as a CTQ is already being measured as part of the routine business, but anywhere something is being done manually – it needs to minimized, automated, or eliminated because it is “non-value added” activity.
Keep in mind that as part of a Six ßigma DMAIC project, you need to have CTQ measurements for a period before you implement a process change, and then after the change is implemented. If you were to select/create a CTQ which was not currently being measured – you would delay your project for a while as you accumulated “pre-implementation” data.
Defining CTQ Outputs: A Key Step in the Design Process
Make sure that as you complete your control charts you do this!