Open Access Model
1. The author of the article “Open Access Initiative and the Developing World” is Gideon Emcee Christian a professor of environmental law in University of Ottawa, Canada. He is a credible author since he takes time to carefully research his arguments and gives credit to other great works that he refers during his writing.
2. The author Gideon Emcee Christian has written and won several awards though his writings. However, most of his works have not been listed in academic search premier database but a few have and are quite popular such include his article “How, What and How effective; Open Access in Western Africa” and
3. The author is writing to the general population because the issue in question differently affects all members of the public irrespective of their geographic location.
4. The publication is an article because it meets the three main characteristics of an article; its objective, gives a factual account and sources used are identified and are reliable.
5. The information is factual as evidenced by the use of different types of back sources. For instance, the author uses quantitative data attained from a survey by Faculty of Engineering in the University of West Indies to prove lack of awareness of open access journals by referring to polls from 79 staff members.
6. The information presented is objective because it’s free from personal bias and emotions, it is also based on observable issues.
7. The purpose of the article to inform the readers; though the issue discussed is important to all, the author takes time to clearly explain its importance, expected achievement and its current state and not entirely focusing all attention to one area of the situation.
Part 2
I. “The Nature of Open Access Publications”
Open Access Publications aims at providing free knowledge from different works to all people irrespective of the place or area they live. To achieve this goal, works must meet the two main conditions before they can be classified in the model; the author must issue an irrevocable right to all users to have access to the work for free, distribute, display or even print personal copies, secondly the work in its standard version must be made available in several online repository which must be maintained by an established organization.
II. “Research Funding”
Funds are required in making research and scholarly articles and since Open Access Model does not require readers to pay for the access, the government in both developed and developing countries should strive and assist the researchers counter this costs. In developing countries however, the government does not truly honor this arrangement thus making it difficult for authors in those countries to develop.
III. “State of Information and Communication Technologies in Developing Countries”
For the Open Access Model to achieve its goal of increase knowledge availability to all, access to the internet is essential. In developing countries internet is not readily available especially in homes, thus making it difficult for all to access research works from the internet and also hindering development of great authors. As a result the model can achieve full results in these countries unless technologies are improved.
IV. “Lack of Awareness and Misconception of Open Access Scholarship”
In addition to lack of internet in developing countries, lack of awareness is also a major problem. Even the few who may have access to the internet may not be aware of World Wide Web which provides access to the resources. Internet users may not be aware of the existence of free access to resources. Further, misconception also affects the success of the model; beliefs such as cheap or free items are of low quality or the idea nothing is free are common in this section.
V. “Potential Threats from Commercial Publishing Houses”
Commercial Publishing Houses gain their resources from paying clients both authors and readers, but with the free online access of great works their existence is threatened. To cope with this changes the houses have changed from producing hard copies to paid online digital subscriptions but this too is currently being fault by the open access initiative. The negative impact from these changes to the houses is noted by the increased mergers of commercial publishing houses. It is therefore expected that this great houses will not go down without a fight and struggle to stop the open Access Model campaign

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