One truth about factory farms is
they rarely inflict any genuine suffering on animals.
most animals we eat are from them.
they are necessary to feed the world.
they are run by brutal people.
“Pollution permits” are an example of which of the following methods of achieving our environmental goals?
a laissez-faire approach
The “tragedy of the commons” is
the lack of a commons—a common place where people can come together.
the failure to appreciate what we have in common with other species.
that cost-benefit analysis involves value judgments that we do not share in common.
that individual pursuit of self-interest can sometimes make everyone worse off.
The philosopher Tom Regan
claims that no impartial morally sensitive person could approve of the treatment of animals in factory farms if he or she knew what was going on.
argues against the use of governmental regulations to control the actions of businesses.
believes that the FTC should be abolished.
denies that non-human animals have any moral rights.
Which of the following is a drawback to the regulatory approach?
regulation can take away an industry’s incentive to do more than the minimum
regulation is an incentive to an industry to do more than the minimum
regulation does not apply to all equally
does not require polluters to use the strongest most feasible means of pollution control.
The moral theorist William T. Blackstone claims that the right to a livable environment
would solve the problem of how to conserve resources.
prevents the use of government regulation to control the actions of business.
is a fundamental human right.
implies that non-human animals have no genuine moral rights.
Concerning future generations,
all philosophers today reject the idea that future people have rights
utilitarianism dictates a radical reduction in population growth
future people have a right to be born
the social and environmental policies we adopt can affect who is born in the future
According to the philosopher Joel Feinberg,
future generations of people have a right to be born.
future generations have no moral rights.
we have no duties to future generations.
the rights of future generations are contingent upon those people coming into existence.
According to Shaw and Barry, utilitarians
focus on human well-being and ignore animal welfare.
oppose animal experimentation in principle.
should include nonhuman animal pleasures and pains in the overall utilitarian calculus.
are likely to favor factory farming.
William F. Baxter addresses environmental ethics by noting
the best ethical position to adopt on environmental issues is a naturalistic position.
non-human animals have intrinsic value.
judgments about environmental problems ought to be people-oriented.
damage to geological “marvels” is inherently wrong and should be prevented.
is not available in sufficient quantities to replenish agricultural land.
is a large source of pollution.
helps counteract the “greenhouse effect”.
is potentially more dangerous than nuclear power.
According to Holmes Rolston III,
naturalistic ethics ought to be abandoned
some natural objects are morally considerable in their own right, apart from human interests
all moral rights are derived from the interests of human beings
nature has no value apart from human beings.
A moral vegetarian
rejects eating meat based on moral grounds
only eats animal that were raised humanely
does not believe animals suffer
the pleasure we get from eating a hamburger justifies the price the animals pay.
Business has considered the environment to be
a scarce commodity.
free and nearly limitless.
a limited supply.
should never be tampered with.
can survive any human intervention.
can be upset by human behavior.
is independent of all other ecosystems.