this is the subject of what the essay needs to be about.
Destinations wanting to promote sustainable tourism are more likely to be successful when there is effective governance…….But in practice there are substantial difficulties that can hinder effective governance for sustainable tourism” (Bramwell, 2011:461).
Critically evaluate this statement and further consider how and why destinations should overcome these difficulties and seek to achieve a sustainable tourism destination through effective governance and tourism policies. In the broader context of critiquing sustainable tourism and its success ensure you use examples of both developing and developed destinations.
reference that need to be included are:
Cooper, C. Fletcher, J. Gilbert, D. Wanhill, S. and
Shepherd, S. (2004) Tourism Principles and
Practice. 2nd edn., London: Pearson Group:
Gossling, S. (2002) Global environmental
consequences of tourism, Global Environmental
Change, Vol, 12 (4), pp. 283–302
Hall, C M & Higham, J (Eds.) (2005) Tourism,
Recreation and Climate Change. Bristol: Channel
Holden, A. (2008) Environment & tourism. London:
Routledge, 2nd edn.
UNWTO et al (2007) Climate Change and Tourism
Wall, G & Mathieson, A. (2003) Tourism: Change,
Impacts and Opportunities. London: Prentice Hall
Chambers R (1997) Responsible well-being – a personal agenda for development. World Development, 25(11) pp. 1743-1754
Hall, M & Page, S. (1996) Tourism in the Pacific- Issues and Cases London: International Thomson Business Press
Lea, J (1988) Tourism and Development in the Third World London : Routledge
Lickorish et al (1991) Developing Tourism Destinations -Policies and Perspectives Harlow : Longman
Sharpley R (2000) Tourism and Sustainable Development: Exploring the Theoretical Divide. Journal of Sustainable Tourism 8(1) pp 1-19
Sharpley, R. (2003) Tourism, tourists and society. Cambridgeshire: ELM Publications
Commission on Global Governance (1995) Our Global Neighborhood. UK: Oxford
• Hall, C. (2008) Tourism Planning: Policies, Processes and Relationships, 2nd ed.,
Harlow: Prentice Hall.
• Keyser, H. (2002) Tourism Development. Cape Town: Oxford University Press.
• Spyriadis, T., Fyall, A. and Buhalis, D. (2011) Dynamics of Destination Governance:
Governance and Metagovernance in the Composite Industrial Environment of
Destinations, in Laws, R., Richins, H., Agrusa, J. and Scott, N. (2011) Tourist
Destination Governance: Practice, Theory and Issues, CABI. [e-book]
• Teegen, H., Doh, J., P. and Vachani, S. (2004) ‘The importance of nongovernmental
organizations (NGOs) in global governance and value creation: an international
business research agenda.