A well-constructed research paper properly synthesizes the writer’s views with the outside perspectives and critiques of other authors. Emphasizing both the author’s original insights and the interpretations of respected supplementary sources, it should ultimately be an expression of the writer’s inquiry into a specific topic of interest. Research paper assignments for the English discipline often range in specificity and length. Nonetheless, there are certain stylistic conventions and expectations associated with the English research paper. The research paper occupies a category of writing all its own. A research paper demands the author invest time and thought in analyzing outside sources in order to forge his or her own unique vision of the text or to shed new light on past interpretations. A research paper does NOT consist of the writer merely rewording or re-contextualizing the thoughts of other authors, but rather must include the writer’s own thoughts and reflections on different perspectives. The goal of the writer is to ENGAGE sources and not to simply RESTATE other interpretations.
Therefore, it is neither necessary nor beneficial to only include perspectives which are in agreement with your own. Research papers are generally designated into two distinctive categories: the argumentative research paper and the analytical research paper. Research papers for the English discipline almost always fall under the latter heading. The analytical research paper typically begins with the author posing a research question. The author should hold off on explicitly stating his or her interpretation until the topic has been sufficiently discussed in terms of its varied implications. In contrast to the argumentative research paper, the analytical research paper is a practice in exploration and reflection, rather than a concisely outlined perspective on a contentious issue. The author’s thoughtful inquiry into the research question should ultimately conclude with the creation of the author’s own, unique perspective on the topic. His or perspective need not refute or stand in opposition to other readings, but rather shed light on other interpretations or offer a new means by which to understand the topic under inquiry. The author will typically develop his or her thesis statement throughout the course of researching and writing the paper. It is to the writer’s benefit to enter the research paper writing process without a predetermined stance and to remain open to the possibility of changing his or her interpretation and thesis several times throughout the process. Listed below is an example of a typical research question and author’s interpretation to the question under consideration.
Google’s data structures are optimized so that a large document collection can be crawled, indexed, and searched with little cost. Although, CPUs and bulk input output rates have improved dramatically over the years, a disk seek still requires about 10 ms to complete. Google is designed to avoid disk seeks whenever possible, and this has had a considerable influence on the design of the data structures. BigFiles are virtual files spanning multiple file systems and are addressable by 64 bit integers. The allocation among multiple file systems is handled automatically. The BigFiles package also handles allocation and deallocation of file descriptors, since the operating systems do not provide enough for our needs. BigFiles also support rudimentary compression options. The repository contains the full HTML of every web page. Each page is compressed using zlib (see RFC1950). The choice of compression technique is a tradeoff between speed and compression ratio. We chose zlib’s speed over a significant improvement in compression offered by bzip.
The compression rate of bzip was approximately 4 to 1 on the repository as compared to zlib’s 3 to 1 compression. The document index keeps information about each document. It is a fixed width ISAM (Index sequential access mode) index, ordered by docID. The information stored in each entry includes the current document status, a pointer into the repository, a document checksum, and various statistics. If the document has been crawled, it also contains a pointer into a variable width file called docinfo which contains its URL and title. Otherwise the pointer points into the URLlist which contains just the URL. The lexicon has several different forms. One important change from earlier systems is that the lexicon can fit in memory for a reasonable price. In the current implementation we can keep the lexicon in memory on a machine with 256 MB of main memory. The current lexicon contains 14 million words (though some rare words were not added to the lexicon).
It is implemented in two parts — a list of the words (concatenated together but separated by nulls) and a hash table of pointers. For various functions, the list of words has some auxiliary information which is beyond the scope of this paper to explain fully. A hit list corresponds to a list of occurrences of a particular word in a particular document including position, font, and capitalization information. Hit lists account for most of the space used in both the forward and the inverted indices. Because of this, it is important to represent them as efficiently as possible. We considered several alternatives for encoding position, font, and capitalization — simple encoding (a triple of integers), a compact encoding (a hand optimized allocation of bits), and Huffman coding. In the end we chose a hand optimized compact encoding since it required far less space than the simple encoding and far less bit manipulation than Huffman coding.