# With respect to Chi-square analysis describe observed and expected frequencies. What is the relationship between observed/expected frequencies and the Chi-square statistic?

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With respect to Chi-square analysis describe observed and expected frequencies. What is the relationship between observed/expected frequencies and the Chi-square statistic?
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Question 22 pts
Depending on its type, a relationship is usually characterized in three ways: by its presence, direction, and strength of association. Discuss these three ways of characterizing relationships and their meaning relative to association.
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Question 32 pts
There are four basic types of relationships between two variables. Which of the following is NOT one of those four basic types?
Linear
Curvilinear
Nonmonotonic
Elliptical

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Question 42 pts
The formal procedure for Chi-square analysis begins when the researcher formulates a statistical null hypothesis that the two variables under investigation are not associated in the population.
True
False

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Question 52 pts
In a nonmonotonic relationship, only the general pattern of presence or absence is known.
True
False

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Question 62 pts
To reveal the nonmonotonic relationships found to be significant in cross-tabulation tables, researchers often turn to ________, which show the relationships very adequately.
tabular presentations
real-life examples
side-by-side comparisons
graphical presentations

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Question 72 pts
With what type of diagram can covariation be examined?
Venn diagram
Scatter diagram
Cause and effect
Flowchart diagram

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Question 82 pts
A ________ is one in which the presence (or absence) of a label for one variable is systematically associated with the presence (or absence) of a label for another variable.
non-linear relationship
non-curvilinear relationship
non-elliptical relationship
nonmonotonic relationship

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Question 92 pts
Depending on its type, a relationship can usually be characterized by all of the following EXCEPT:
Its absence.
Its presence.
Its direction.
Its strength of association.

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Question 102 pts
What is the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient? How does the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient indicate not only degree of association but also the direction?
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Question 112 pts
Cross-tabulation can only be used for two variables; each variable must have well-defined labels.
True
False

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Question 122 pts
There is an orderly procedure for determining the presence, direction, and strength of a relationship,
True
False

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Question 132 pts
Within the guidelines on the reporting of correlation findings, marketing researchers usually have a “target” or a “focal” variable in mind, and they look at correlations of other variables of interest with this target variable.
True
False

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Question 142 pts
Bar charts can be used to “see” a nonmonotonic relationship.
True
False

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Question 152 pts
When dealing with Chi-square, it is always necessary for the researcher to state a hypothesis in a formal sense.
True
False

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Question 162 pts
When the researcher determines that a true relationship does exist in the population by means of the correct statistical test, he or she then establishes its:
Direction or pattern.
Pattern and specificity.
Significance or pattern.
Direction or significance.

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Question 172 pts
A correlation coefficient merely investigates the presence, strength, and direction of a linear relationship between two variables.
True
False

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Question 182 pts
There is an orderly procedure for determining the presence, direction, and strength of a relationship. Outline and briefly discuss the six steps involved in the procedure for analyzing the relationship between two variables.
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Question 192 pts
________ are those in which there is a high probability that the two variables will exhibit a dependable relationship, regardless of the type of relationship being analyzed.
High correlations
Strong associations
High variabilities
High dependencies

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Question 202 pts
With correlation analysis, each correlation will have a unique significance level.
True
False

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Question 212 pts
Associations can be characterized by presence, direction, and strength, depending on the scaling assumptions of the questions being compared. Discuss how these characteristics are readily seen in correlation analysis.
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Question 222 pts
A handy graphical tool that illustrates a nonmonotonic relationship is a ________ in which two variables are accommodated simultaneously.
stacked bar chart
horizontal bar chart
grouped bar chart
pie chart

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Question 232 pts
It is important to note that the angle or the slope of an ellipse has everything to do with the size of the correlation coefficient. Everything hinges on the width of the ellipse.
True
False

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Question 242 pts
There are instances in which a marketing researcher wants to see if there is a relationship between the responses to one question and the responses to another question in the same survey. Identify the four types of possible relationships. Discuss how they are differentiated.
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